When I was studying the aesthetics of biological inquiry, my adviser kept driving home the distinction between the aesthetics of the process of research and its product. So far in this series of posts (1,2,3), I’ve focused on the process, what Gerald Holton (1973) calls the private side of science. This includes the joy of discovery, the pain of failure, the exhilaration of sensing the path to figuring out a problem. Usually, this gets bleached out of a publication on the product of this work, which in systematics might mean description of a new species or even a new genus. Does this mean that there is no aesthetic aspect to research products? I hardly think so; there are eloquent and not so eloquent ways of communicating results, and the difference matters. Historians argue that one of the reasons it took so long for biologists to recognize the significance of Barbara McClintock’s work on mobile genetic elements in corn was that her papers were so obtuse (Keller, 1983; Comfort, 2001). It was difficult to appreciate the significance of the work, and added to this was a sense that corn was an odd plant genetically. Her work was less valued for reasons that weren’t without an aesthetic component.
It is possible to describe a new species solely in words. There are no images in Carl Linnaeus’s Species Plantarum nor in many other botanical classics. But the use of images arose early in the history of modern botany and even occurred before that time. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder cites an illustrated materia medica text by Crateuas from the first century BCE, and the 6th century Juliana Codex has many realistic plant illustrations (Morton, 1981). Before John Sibthorp went on his collecting trip to the Levant, he spent months in Vienna studying the Codex and a 17th century manuscript with illustrations based on it (Lack, 1999). The great early modern herbals of the 16th century including those of Otto Brunfels and Leonhart Fuchs were significant not so much for their texts, but for their illustrations. Rembert Dodoens’s work was considered important for both (Ogilvie. 2006).
But while some botanists thought illustrations essential, others put the emphasis on clear descriptions. There are no images in John Ray’s Historia Plantarum. Even in the 19th century, botanists like Joseph Dalton Hooker saw text as more scientifically rigorous than images (Endersby, 2008). Like many botanists, he thought images were only necessary for the less serious plant fanciers. Today systematic publications, especially those describing new species, often have pen and ink illustrations and/or color photographs. I haven’t done a formal study but I think the ratio of illustrations to photographs has declined over the years. I would argue that this is to the detriment of both science and aesthetics. Photographs are great, but often they become more legible when the eye has been trained on drawings that clearly delineate features.
However, communicating botany involves more than systematists communicating with other systematists, more to making the products of research public. Among those products are the herbarium specimens, the tools that botanists use in their work. These were created in private, but deserve to be public, both because they help people understand what botanists do and can transmit the excitement and exhilaration of research. Sometimes when I am inputting label data from a specimen, someone will come in and say “that’s a beautiful specimen,” or I will simply say it to myself. I have been known to photograph some of my favorites (see image above) as I would a beautiful flower in a garden or a striking landscape, just so I can relive the experience of it. Working in a herbarium is like working in the storage facility of a great museum, like the 105,000 square foot underground facility at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The difference is that most herbarium treasures rarely get displayed.
Specimens are aesthetic objects for two reasons. Some of them are indeed beautiful, and that’s why art professors send their students to herbaria to study and draw them. But there are also the stories that are attached, either physically and more peripherally to specimens. Especially in historical collections, there are sometimes letters or notes affixed to sheets perhaps written by the person who sent the specimen to a botanist, describing where it was found or giving some other reason for its significance. In other cases, it is a note reminding the botanist of its significance. The 19th century Pennsylvania botanist William Darlington noted on a Rudbeckia triloba specimen that “This appears to be the last plant poor Baldwin collected.” He was referring to his friend William Baldwin who died on the Long Expedition in 1820. Another Darlington notation reads: “Symphoria racemosa from John Jackson’s garden raised by him from plants brought from the Missouri by Lewis & Clark.” That was definitely worth recording.
To me these brief notations open up narratives about collecting in the early years of the United States, about the personal and national significance such collections can have. I will end my ramble on aesthetics by mentioning the exhilaration I felt when I found these remarks while having the opportunity to study some of the material at the William Darlington Herbarium at West Chester University. Opening up such collections and making them available digitally will allow a broader audience to appreciate them and interpret them in new ways.
Note: I am very grateful to Sharon Began of the Biology Department and Ron McColl in the Library Archives at West Chester University who were extremely helpful to me on my several visits there.
Comfort, N. (2001). The Tangled Field: Barbara McClintock’s Search for the Pattern’s of Genetic Control. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Endersby, J. (2008). Imperial Nature: Joseph Hooker and the Practices of Victorian Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Holton, G. (1973). Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Keller, E. F. (1983). A Feeling for the Organism: The Life and Work of Barbara McClintock. New York: Freeman.
Lack, H. W. (2000). Lilac and horse-chestnut: Discovery and rediscovery. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, 17(2), 109–141. https://www.jstor.org/stable/45065430
Morton, A. G. (1981). History of Botanical Science. New York: Academic Press.